UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER

                      William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration

Finance 423/523                                                                      Professor G. William Schwert

Corporate Financial Policy & Control                                                     CS3-110L, 275-2470

Spring 2013                                                                                                            Fax: 461-5475

Th 1:00-4:00                                                         email: schwert@schwert.ssb.rochester.edu

 

                                                                                                        Secretary:  Kathleen Madsen

                                                                                                              CS3-110M, 585-275-8127

                                                                                     email: madsenka@simon.rochester.edu

 

This course will cover the theory and evidence concerning major corporate financial policy decisions.  FIN 423/523 discusses alternative methods of issuing and retiring securities, mergers and acquisitions, and the market for corporate control.  We will have one class meeting per week.  Grading will be flexible – students will have input to determine what type of evaluation procedure will be used. 

The reading assignments will be announced in class and will more or less follow the sequence given below.  I have included additional references, which are not required, for students who want more information on particular topics.  These are not on reserve, but copies of these journals are available in the Management Library (and they are available electronically through the Management Library).  There are a few recommended texts for this course:


J. Fred Weston, Mark L. Mitchell, and Harold Mulherin, Takeovers, Restructuring, and Corporate Governance, (4th ed.), Prentice-Hall, New York, 2004, ISBN-10: 0131407376 [referred to as “WMM” in the reading assignments].

Stuart C. Gilson, Creating Value Through Corporate Restructuring: Case Studies in Bankruptcies, Buyouts, and Breakups, (2nd ed.), Wiley, New York, 2010, ISBN: 978-0-470-50352-2.

Donald Chew, The New Corporate Finance:  Where Theory Meets Practice, (3rd ed.), McGraw-Hill, 2001, ISBN-10: 007233973X. [Articles in the Chew book are indicated by “(DC)” in the list below.]

Richard Brealey, Stewart Myers, and Franklin Allen, Principles of Corporate Finance, (10th ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York, 2010, ISBN-10: 0073530735.


Finally, and perhaps most important, I would like all of the students in the class to read the Wall Street Journal or some similar publication on a regular basis since the topics covered in this course are discussed regularly in this newspaper.

Relation to Other Finance Courses

This course is targeted at Ph.D. students who are interested in being exposed to the theoretical and empirical literature on securities offerings and mergers and acquisitions (M&A).  Highly motivated MBA students are also encouraged to participate in the course, but should understand that the expectations and workload will not be typical of most MBA courses.

Expectations of Student Performance

My expectations are that students will come to class prepared by having read the necessary material.  The lectures will not rehash the readings.  Rather, we will discuss different perspectives on the arguments presented in the readings.  Active, high quality class participation will enhance the grades of students who are near margins in the final grade distribution.

I will hand out notes to accompany some of the lectures.  Occasionally, I will also hand out stories reproduced from the popular business press (e.g., the Wall Street Journal).  Class attendance is very important to successful completion of this course.  If you know that you will be unable to attend more than a few of the classes, you should probably not register for this course.  If you know that you have to be late for class, or leave early, please show courtesy to the rest of the class (and to me) by entering and leaving the room as discretely as possible.  If you miss a class, or are late in arriving, it is your responsibility to obtain copies of any handouts that were distributed in class [do not rummage around on the teaching desk looking for handouts if you arrive late!]  I suggest that you form study teams and help each other out -- get extra copies of handouts for missing team-mates.  I will not provide an inventory of class handouts for people who miss class, but most of the handouts will be available on the class web page (see below).

There may be some guest lecturers (other faculty members and Ph.D. students).  In addition, every student who is registered for the course to be responsible for leading the discussion of one or more related papers during some part of the course (MBA students may work in a group to prepare and lead the discussion).  Of course, I will be available to help you plan your lecture, and I will supplement what you say in class.  You should find a topic that interests you and volunteer early.

Grading

The grading for this course will be based on a flexible system.  All Ph.D. students will be required to write a paper, and groups of MBA students will also be expected to write a paper.  There may be a few homework assignments (in addition to the replication assignment mentioned previously), which for MBA students may be “reading responses” that describe your thoughts on particular assigned readings.  PhD students may be asked to write “referee’s reports” on particular papers.  There will be no exams.

The topic of the paper can be anything related to the course.  I will approve paper topics that are unconventional, but you do not need to ask permission to write a paper on a topic similar to those listed below.  For MBA students, these papers should simulate a business research report to your boss.  For example, if you are analyzing a potential merger, you might pretend that you are a junior staff member of an investment banking firm (or one of the companies involved in the transaction), and I (your boss) have asked you to report your analysis and recommendations concerning the merger (for example, Is the price a ‘good’ one?  Why?  What are the purported gains from this merger?  Does the stock market think it is a wise transaction for our company or the other company?  Are there likely to be regulatory problems or litigation?  etc.)  You may ask for general guidance as you might ask your boss, but don’t come and ask me what you should write because I (your boss) expect you to be able to do this analysis yourself.  Examples would be:

 

 

(1)   an event study on price performance of new issues in recent years;

(2)   an analysis of the use of “real options” methods in valuing IPOs (with an example);

(3)   a case study (similar to Ruback’s paper on Conoco) on a major acquisition, spin-off, or proxy fight.  Students in the past have studied Chase-Lincoln, Norstar-Security, Xerox-Crum & Forster, Computer Consoles-N.B.I., and Kodak-Sterling Drug;

(4)   a case study of the performance of a successful merger or tender offer from 1 to 5 years after it was completed;

(5)   or any other topic that I approve.

 

Course Information on the World Wide Web (WWW)

Most of the materials for this course will be posted on the home page for this course [http://schwert.simon.rochester.edu/f423/f423.htm].  For example, I plan to post copies of the slides used in the classroom presentations as Adobe Acrobat files (so they can be viewed and printed from the WWW).  In addition, I have collected lists of sites that students can use to collect information on security prices (if you want to do an event study), on financial news, on securities filings with the S.E.C. (if you want to study a particular IPO prospectus, for example), and so forth.  I want to encourage all students to use this resource throughout the course.  One possible “paper” that students might do is to create web pages that would allow future students to analyze particular types of deals that are discussed in this course (e.g., information and data sources, examples of similar transactions, etc.)  If you are interested in pursuing that option, please see me early in the quarter.

 

                                                          Topics and Readings

Required readings are indicated with an asterisk “*”  Additional journal articles, which are not required, are included for students who want more information on particular topics.  These are not on reserve in the library, although copies of the Journal of Financial Economics, the Journal of Finance, and the Review of Financial Studies are available in the Management Library (and available online through these links if you are logged into the UR network).


 

I.          Introduction to the Course

Smith, Clifford W., “Raising Capital:  Theory and Evidence,” (DC, 277-293).

Brealey, Myers & Allen, Ch. 14 and 15.

Henderson, Brian J., Narasimhan Jegadeesh and Michael S. Weisbach, “World markets for raising new capital,” Journal of Financial Economics, 82 (October 2006) 63-101.


 

II.            Venture Capital and Initial Public Offerings of Common Stock

 

*Ritter, Jay and Ivo Welch, “A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing, and Allocations,” Journal of Finance, 57 (August 2002) 1795-1828.

*Lowry, Michelle and G. William Schwert, “IPO Market Cycles: Bubbles or Sequential Learning?” Journal of Finance, 57 (June 2002) 1171-1200.

*Lowry, Michelle and G. William Schwert, “Is the IPO Pricing Process Efficient?” Journal of Financial Economics, 71 (January 2004) 3-26.

*Lowry, Michelle Micah S. Officer, and G. William Schwert, “The Variability of IPO Initial Returns,” Journal of Finance, 65 (April 2010) 425–465.

*Gao, Xiaohui, Jay R. Ritter, and Zhongyan Zhu, "Where Have All the IPOs Gone?"

Abrahamson, Mark, Tim Jenkinson, and Howard Jones, “Why Don't U.S. Issuers Demand European Fees for IPOs?” Journal of Finance, 66 (December 2011) 2055–2082.

Acharya, Viral V., Oliver F. Gottschalg, Moritz Hahn, and Conor Kehoe, “Corporate Governance and Value Creation: Evidence from Private Equity,” Review of Financial Studies, 26 (2013) 368-402.

Aggarwal, Rajesh K., Laurie Krigman, and Kent L. Womack, “Strategic IPO Underpricing, Information Momentum, and Lockup Expiration Selling,” Journal of Financial Economics, 66 (October 2003) 105-137.

Aggarwal, Reena, “Stabilization Activities by Underwriters after Initial Public Offerings,” Journal of Finance, 55 (June 2000) 1075–1103.

Aggarwal, Reena, “Allocation of Initial Public Offerings and Flipping Activity,” Journal of Financial Economics, 68 (April 2003) 111-135.

Aggarwal, Reena, and Pat Conroy, “Price Discovery in Initial Public Offerings and the Role of the Lead Underwriter,” Journal of Finance, 55 (December 2000) 2903–2922.

Aggarwal, Reena, Nagpurnanand R. Prabhala, and Manju Puri, “Institutional Allocation in Initial Public Offerings: Empirical Evidence,” Journal of Finance, 57 (June 2002) 1421–1442.

Altı, Aydoğan, “IPO Market Timing,” Review of Financial Studies, 18 (2005) 1105-1138.

Amihud, Yakov, Shmuel Hauser, and Amir Kirsh, “Allocations, Adverse Selection, and Cascades in IPOs: Evidence from the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange,” Journal of Financial Economics, 68 (April 2003) 137-158.

Ang, James S. and James C. Brau, “Concealing and Confounding Adverse Signals: Insider Wealth-maximizing Behavior in the IPO process,” Journal of Financial Economics, 67 (January 2003) 149-172.

Aruǧaslan, Onur, Douglas O. Cook, and Robert Kieschnick, “Monitoring as a Motivation for IPO Underpricing,” Journal of Finance, 59 (October 2004) 2403–2420.

Asquith, Daniel, Jonathan D. Jones, and Robert Kieschnick, “Evidence on Price Stabilization and Underpricing in Early IPO Returns,” Journal of Finance, 53 (October 1998) 1759-1773.

Atanasov, Vladimir, Vladimir Ivanov, and Kate Litvak, “Does Reputation Limit Opportunistic Behavior in the VC Industry? Evidence from Litigation against VCs,” Journal of Finance, 67 (December 2012) 2215–2246.

Ball, Eric, Hsin Hui Chiu, and Richard Smith, “Can VCs Time the Market? An Analysis of Exit Choice for Venture-backed Firms,” Review of Financial Studies, 24 (2011) 3105-3138.

Barry, Christopher B., Chris J. Muscarella, John W. Peavy III, and Michael R. Vetsuypens, “The Role of Venture Capital in the Creation of Public Companies: Evidence from the Going-Public Process,” Journal of Financial Economics, 27 (September 1990) 447-471.

Beatty, Randolph P. and Jay R. Ritter, “Investment Banking, Reputation, and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 15 (1986) 213-232.

Benninga, Simon, Mark Helmantel and Oded Sarig, “The Timing of Initial Public Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 75 (January 2005) 115-132.

Benveniste, Lawrence M.,  Alexander Ljungqvist, William J. Wilhelm Jr., and Xiaoyun Yu, “Evidence of Information Spillovers in the Production of Investment Banking Services,” Journal of Finance, 58 (April 2003) 577–608.

Black, Bernard S. and Ronald J. Gilson, “Venture Capital and the Structure of Capital Markets: Banks versus Stock Markets,” Journal of Financial Economics, 47 (March 1998) 243-277.

Bodnaruk, Andriy, Eugene Kandel, Massimo Massa, and Andrei Simonov, “Shareholder Diversification and the Decision to Go Public,” Review of Financial Studies, 21 (2008) 2779-2824.

Bradley, Daniel J., Bradford D. Jordan, and Jay R. Ritter, “The Quiet Period Goes out with a Bang,” Journal of Finance, 58 (February 2003) 1–36.

Brau, James C., and Stanley E. Fawcett, “Initial Public Offerings: An Analysis of Theory and Practice,” Journal of Finance, 61 (February 2006) 399–436.

Braun, Matías, and Borja Larrain, “Do IPOs Affect the Prices of Other Stocks? Evidence from Emerging Markets,” Review of Financial Studies, 22 (2009) 1505-1544.

Brav, Alon and Paul A. Gompers, “Myth or Reality?  The Long-run Underperformance of Initial Public Offerings: Evidence from Venture and Non-venture Capital-backed Companies,” Journal of Finance, 52 (December 1997) 1791-1822.

Brav, Alon, and Paul A. Gompers, The Role of Lockups in Initial Public Offerings Review of Financial Studies, 16 (2003) 1-29.

Brav, Omer, “Access to Capital, Capital Structure, and the Funding of the Firm,” Journal of Finance, 64 (February 2009) 263–308.

Brennan, Michael J., and Julian Franks, “Underpricing, ownership and control in initial public offerings of equity securities in the U.K.,” Journal of Financial Economics, 45 (September 1997) 391-413.

Busaba, Walid Y., Lawrence M. Benveniste, and Re-Jin Guo, “The Option to Withdraw IPOs during the Premarket: Empirical Analysis,” Journal of Financial Economics, 60 (April 2001) 73-102.

Cao, Jerry, and Josh Lerner, “The performance of reverse leveraged buyouts,” Journal of Financial Economics, 91 (February 2009) 139-157.

Carter, Richard B., Frederick H. Dark, and Ajai K. Singh, “Underwriter Reputation, Initial Returns, and the Long-Run Performance of IPO Stocks,” Journal of Finance, 53 (February 1998) 285-311.

Carter, Richard, and Steven Manaster, “Initial Public Offerings and Underwriter Reputation,” Journal of Finance, 45 (September 1990) 1045–1067.

Celikyurt, Ugur, Merih Sevilir, and Anil Shivdasani, “Going public to acquire? The acquisition motive in IPOs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 96 (June 2010) 345-363.

Chambers, David, and Elroy Dimson, “IPO Underpricing over the Very Long Run,” Journal of Finance, 64 (June 2009) 1407–1443.

Chemmanur, Thomas J., “The Pricing of Initial Public Offerings: A Dynamic Model with Information Production,” Journal of Finance, 48 (March 1993) 285–304.

Chemmanur, Thomas J., and P. Fulghieri, “A theory of the going-public decision,” Review of Financial Studies, 12 (1999) 249-279.

Chemmanur, Thomas J., Shan He, and Debarshi K. Nandy, “The Going-Public Decision and the Product Market,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 1855-1908.

Chemmanur, Thomas J., Gang Hu, and Jiekun Huang, “The Role of Institutional Investors in Initial Public Offerings,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 4496-4540.

Chemmanur, Thomas J., Karthik Krishnan, and Debarshi K. Nandy, “How Does Venture Capital Financing Improve Efficiency in Private Firms? A Look Beneath the Surface,” Review of Financial Studies, 24 (2011) 4037-4090.

Chemmanur, Thomas J. and Imants Paeglis, “Management Quality, Certification, and Initial Public Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 76 (May 2005) 331-368.

Chen, Hsuan-Chi, and Jay R. Ritter, “The Seven Percent Solution,” Journal of Finance, 55 (June 2000) 1105–1131.

Chen, Zhaohui, and William J. Wilhelm Jr., “A theory of the transition to secondary market trading of IPOs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 90 (December 2008) 219-236.

Chiang, Yao-Min, David Hirshleifer, Yiming Qian, and Ann E. Sherman, “Do Investors Learn from Experience? Evidence from Frequent IPO Investors,” Review of Financial Studies, 24 (2011) 1560-1589.

Chiang, Yao-Min, Yiming Qian, and Ann E. Sherman, “Endogenous Entry and Partial Adjustment in IPO Auctions:  Are Institutional Investors Better Informed?”Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 1200-1230.

Cliff, Michael T., and David J. Denis, “Do Initial Public Offering Firms Purchase Analyst Coverage with Underpricing?,” Journal of Finance, 59 (December 2004) 2871–2901.

Cochrane, John H., “The Risk and Return of Venture Capital,” Journal of Financial Economics, 75 (January 2005) 3-52.

Cook, Douglas O., Robert Kieschnick and Robert A. Van Ness, “On the marketing of IPOs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 82 (October 2006) 35-61.

Cornelli,  Francesca  David Goldreich, and Alexander Ljungqvist, “Investor Sentiment and Pre-IPO Markets,” Journal of Finance, 61 (June 2006) 1187–1216.

Cornelli, Francesca, and David Goldreich, “Bookbuilding: How Informative Is the Order Book?,” Journal of Finance, 58 (August 2003) 1415–1443.

Corwin, Shane A.  Jeffrey H. Harris, and Marc L. Lipson, “The Development of Secondary Market Liquidity for NYSE-Listed IPOs,” Journal of Finance, 59 (October 2004) 2339–2374.

Corwin, Shane A., and Paul Schultz, “The Role of IPO Underwriting Syndicates: Pricing, Information Production, and Underwriter Competition,” Journal of Finance, 60 (February 2005) 443–486.

Cronqvist, Henrik, and Mattias Nilsson, “The choice between rights offerings and private equity placements,” Journal of Financial Economics, 78 (November 2005) 375-407.

Cumming, Douglas, “Contracts and Exits in Venture Capital Finance,” Review of Financial Studies, 21 (2008) 1947-1982.

Da, Zhi, Joseph Engelberg, and Pengjie Gao, “In Search of Attention,” Journal of Finance, 66 (October 2011) 1461–1499.

Das, Somnath, Re-Jin Guo, and Huai Zhang, “Analysts' Selective Coverage and Subsequent Performance of Newly Public Firms,” Journal of Finance, 61 (June 2006) 1159–1185.

Demers, Elizabeth and Katharina Lewellen, “The Marketing Role of IPOs: Evidence from Internet Stocks,” Journal of Financial Economics, 68 (June 2003) 413-437.

Degeorge, François, François Derrien, and Kent L. Womack, “Analyst Hype in IPOs: Explaining the Popularity of Bookbuilding,” Review of Financial Studies, 20 (2007) 1021-1058.

Degeorge, François, François Derrien, and Kent L. Womack, “Auctioned IPOs: The US evidence,” Journal of Financial Economics, 98 (November 2010) 177-194.

Derrien, François, IPO Pricing in “Hot” Market Conditions: Who Leaves Money on the Table?,” Journal of Finance, 60 (February 2005) 487–521.

Derrien, François, and Ambrus Kecskés, The Initial Public Offerings of Listed Firms,” Journal of Finance, 62 (February 2007) 447–479.

Derrien, François, and Kent L. Womack, “Auctions vs. Bookbuilding and the Control of Underpricing in Hot IPO Markets,” Review of Financial Studies, 16 (2003) 31-61.

Dewenter, Kathryn L., and Paul H. Malatesta, Public Offerings of State-Owned And Privately-Owned Enterprises: An International Comparison,” Journal of Finance, 52 (September 1997) 1659–1679.

Dunbar, Craig G., “The Use of Warrants as Underwriter Compensation in Initial Public Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 38 (May 1995) 59-78.

Dunbar, Craig G., “Factors Affecting Investment Bank Initial Public Offering Market Share,” Journal of Financial Economics, 55 (January 2000) 3-41.

Dunbar, Craig G., and Stephen R. Foerster, “Second time lucky? Withdrawn IPOs that return to the market,” Journal of Financial Economics, 87 (March 2008) 610-635.

Edelen, Roger M. and Gregory B. Kadlec, “Issuer Surplus and the Partial Adjustment of IPO Prices to Public Information,” Journal of Financial Economics, 77 (August 2005) 347-373.

Edwards, Amy K. and Kathleen Weiss Hanley, “Short selling in initial public offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics s, 98 (October 2010) 21-39.

Ellis, Katrina, “Who Trades IPOs? A Close Look at the First Days of Trading,” Journal of Financial Economics, 79 (February 2006) 339-363.

Ellis, Katrina, Roni Michaely, and Maureen O'Hara, “When the Underwriter Is the Market Maker: An Examination of Trading in the IPO Aftermarket,” Journal of Finance, 55 (June 2000) 1039–1074.

Ellul, Andrew, and Marco Pagano, “IPO Underpricing and After-Market Liquidity,” Review of Financial Studies, 19 (2006) 381-421.

Fernando, Chitru S., Vladimir A. Gatchev, and Paul A. Spindt, “Wanna Dance? How Firms and Underwriters Choose Each Other,” Journal of Finance, 60 (October 2005) 2437–2469.

Field, Laura Casares, and Gordon Hanka, “The Expiration of IPO Share Lockups,” Journal of Finance, 56 (April 2001) 471–500.

Field, Laura Casares, and Jonathan M. Karpoff, “Takeover Defenses of IPO Firms,” Journal of Finance, 57 (October 2002) 1857–1889.

Foley, C. Fritz, and Robin Greenwood, “The Evolution of Corporate Ownership after IPO: The Impact of Investor Protection,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 1231-1260.

Gomes, Armando, “Going Public without Governance: Managerial Reputation Effects,” Journal of Finance, 55 (April 2000) 615–646.

Gande, Amar, Manju Puri, and Anthony Saunders, “Bank Entry, Competition and the Market for Corporate Securities Underwriting,” Journal of Financial Economics, 54 (November 1999) 165-195.

Gompers, Paul A., “Optimal Investment, Monitoring, and the Staging of Venture Capital,” Journal of Finance, 50 (December 1995) 1461-1489.

Gompers, Paul, and Josh Lerner, “Venture Capital Distributions: Short-Run and Long-Run Reactions,” Journal of Finance, 53 (December 1998) 2161–2183.

Gompers, Paul and Josh Lerner, “Money Chasing Deals?  The Impact of Fund Inflows on Private Equity Valuations,” Journal of Financial Economics, 55 (February 2000) 281-325.

Gompers, Paul A., and Josh Lerner, “The Really Long-Run Performance of Initial Public Offerings: The Pre-Nasdaq Evidence,” Journal of Finance, 58 (August 2003) 1355–1392.

Gompers, Paul, Anna Kovner, Josh Lerner, and David Scharfstein, “Venture capital investment cycles: The impact of public markets,” Journal of Financial Economics, 87 (January 2008) 1-23.

Gondat-Larralde, Céline, and Kevin R. James, “IPO Pricing and Share Allocation: The Importance of Being Ignorant,” Journal of Finance, 63 (February 2008) 449–478.

Griffin, John M., Jeffrey H. Harris and Selim Topaloglu, “Why are IPO investors net buyers through lead underwriters?” Journal of Financial Economics, 85 (August 2007) 518-551.

Habib, M. A., and A. P. Ljungqvist, “Underpricing and entrepreneurial wealth losses in IPOs: theory and evidence,” Review of Financial Studies, 14 (2001) 433-458.

Hanley, Kathleen Weiss, and Gerard Hoberg, “The Information Content of IPO Prospectuses,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 2821-2864.

Hanley, Kathleen Weiss and Gerard Hoberg, “Litigation risk, strategic disclosure and the underpricing of initial public offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 103 (February 2012) 235-254.

Hanley, Kathleen Weiss and William J. Wilhelm, “Evidence on the Strategic Allocation of Initial Public Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 37 (February 1995) 239-257.

Hansen, Robert S., “Do Investment Banks Compete in IPOs?: The Advent of the “7% plus Contract”,” Journal of Financial Economics, 59 (March 2001) 313-346.

Hao, Qing, “Laddering in initial public offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 85 (July 2007) 102-122.

He, Ping, “A Theory of IPO Waves,” Review of Financial Studies, 20 (2007) 983-1020.

Hellmann, Thomas, “IPOs, acquisitions, and the use of convertible securities in venture capital,” Journal of Financial Economics, 81 (September 2006) 649-679.

Helwege,  Jean,  Christo Pirinsky, and René M. Stulz, “Why Do Firms Become Widely Held? An Analysis of the Dynamics of Corporate Ownership,” Journal of Finance, 62 (June 2007) 995–1028.

Hertzel, Michael G., Mark R. Huson, and Robert Parrino, “Public market staging: The timing of capital infusions in newly public firms,” Journal of Financial Economics, 106 (October 2012) 72-90.

Hochberg, Yael V., Alexander Ljungqvist, and Yang Lu, “Whom You Know Matters: Venture Capital Networks and Investment Performance,” Journal of Finance, 62 (February 2007) 251–301.

Hsu, Hung-Chia, Adam V. Reed, and Jörg Rocholl, “The New Game in Town: Competitive Effects of IPOs,” Journal of Finance, 65 (April 2010) 495–528.

Hughes, P.J., and A.V. Thakor, “Litigation Risk, Intermediation, and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings,” Review of Financial Studies, 5 (1992) 709-742.

 

Ibbotson, Roger, “Price Performance of Common Stock New Issues,” Journal of Financial Economics, 2 (September 1975) 235-272.

Ibbotson, Roger, Jody Sindelar, and Jay Ritter, “Initial Public Offerings,” (DC, 309-317).

Ibbotson, Roger, Jody Sindelar, and Jay Ritter, “The Market’s Problem with the Pricing of Initial Public Offerings,” Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 7 (Spring 1994) 66-74.

Jain, Bharat A. and Omesh Kini, “The Post-issue Operating Performance of IPO Firms,” Journal of Finance, 49 (December 1994) 1699-1726.

James, Christopher and Jason Karceski, “Strength of analyst coverage following IPOs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 82 (October 2006) 1-34.

James, Christopher and Peggy Wier, “Borrowing Relationships, Intermediation, and the Cost of Issuing Public Securities,” Journal of Financial Economics, 28 (November 1990) 149-171.

Jenkinson, Tim, and Howard Jones, “Bids and Allocations in European IPO Bookbuilding,” Journal of Finance, 59 (October 2004) 2309–2338.

Jenkinson, Tim, and Howard Jones, “IPO Pricing and Allocation: A Survey of the Views of Institutional Investors,” Review of Financial Studies, 22 (2009) 1477-1504.

Jenkinson, Tim, Alan D. Morrison and William J. Wilhelm, Jr., “Why are European IPOs so rarely priced outside the indicative price range?” Journal of Financial Economics, 80 (April 2006) 185-209.

Kandel, S., O. Sarig, and A. Wohl, “The demand for stocks: An analysis of IPO auctions,” Review of Financial Studies, 12 (1999) 227-247.

Kaplan, Steven N., Berk A. Sensoy, and Per Strömberg, “Should Investors Bet on the Jockey or the Horse? Evidence from the Evolution of Firms from Early Business Plans to Public Companies,” Journal of Finance, 64 (February 2009) 75–115.

Kaustia,Markku, and Samuli Knüpfer, “Do Investors Overweight Personal Experience? Evidence from IPO Subscriptions,” Journal of Finance, 63 (December 2008) 2679–2702.

Kerins, Frank, Kenji Kutsuna and Richard Smith, “Why are IPOs underpriced? Evidence from Japan's hybrid auction-method offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 85 (September 2007) 637-666.

Khanna, Naveen, Thomas H. Noe, and Ramana Sonti, “Good IPOs Draw in Bad: Inelastic Banking Capacity and Hot Markets,” Review of Financial Studies, 21 (2008) 1873-1906.

Kim, Moonchul and Jay Ritter, “Valuing IPOs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 53 (September 1999) 409-437.

Krigman, Laurie, Wayne H. Shaw and Kent L. Womack, “The Persistence of IPO Mispricing and the Predictive Power of Flipping,” Journal of Finance, 54 (April 1998) 1015-1044.

Koh, Francis and Terry Walter, “A Direct Test of Rock’s Model of the Pricing of Unseasoned Issues,” Journal of Financial Economics, 23 (August 1989) 251-272.

Kutsuna, Kenji , Janet Kiholm Smith, and Richard L. Smith, “Public Information, IPO Price Formation, and Long-Run Returns: Japanese Evidence,” Journal of Finance, 64 (February 2009) 505–546.

Kutsuna, Kenji, and Richard Smith, “Why Does Book Building Drive Out Auction Methods of IPO Issuance? Evidence from Japan,” Review of Financial Studies, 17 (2004) 1129-1166.

Lee, Peggy M. and Sunil Wahal, “Grandstanding, Certification and the Underpricing of Venture Capital Backed IPOs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 73 (August 2004) 375-407.

Lerner, Joshua, “Venture Capitalists and the Decision to Go Public,” Journal of Financial Economics, 35 (June 1994) 293-316.

Lerner, Josh, Antoinette Schoar, “The illiquidity puzzle: theory and evidence from private equity,” Journal of Financial Economics, 72 (April 2004) 3-40.

Lerner, Joshua, Hilary Shane, and Alexander Tsai, “Do equity financing cycles matter? Evidence from biotechnology alliances,” Journal of Financial Economics, 67 (March 2003) 411-446.

Lewellen, Katharina, “Risk, Reputation, and IPO Price Support,” Journal of Finance, 61 (April 2006) 613–653.

Lindsey, Laura, “Blurring Firm Boundaries: The Role of Venture Capital in Strategic Alliances,” Journal of Finance, 63 (June 2008) 1137–1168.

Liu, Xiaoding, and Jay R. Ritter, “The Economic Consequences of IPO Spinning,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 2024-2059.

Liu, Xiaoding, and Jay R. Ritter, “Local underwriter oligopolies and IPO underpricing,” Journal of Financial Economics, 102 (December 2011) 579-601.

Ljungqvist, Alexander P., Tim Jenkinson, and William J. Wilhelm, Jr., “Global Integration in Primary Equity Markets: The Role of U.S. Banks and U.S. Investors,” Review of Financial Studies, 16 (2003) 63-99.

Ljungqvist, Alexander, Felicia Marston, and William J. Wilhelm Jr., “Competing for Securities Underwriting Mandates: Banking Relationships and Analyst Recommendations,” Journal of Finance, 61 (February 2006) 301–340.

Ljungqvist, Alexander P. and Wilhelm, William J., Jr., “IPO Allocations: Discriminatory or Discretionary?” Journal of Financial Economics, 65 (August 2002) 167-201.

Ljungqvist, Alexander, and William J. Wilhelm Jr., “IPO Pricing in the Dot-com Bubble,” Journal of Finance, 58 (April 2003) 723–752.

Ljungqvist, Alexander, and William J. Wilhelm Jr., “Does Prospect Theory Explain IPO Market Behavior?,” Journal of Finance, 60 (August 2005) 1759–1790.

Loughran, Tim and Jay R. Ritter, “The New Issues Puzzle,” Journal of Finance, 50 (March 1995) 23-51.

Loughran, Tim, and Jay R. Ritter, Why Don't Issuers Get Upset About Leaving Money on the Table in IPOs? Review of Financial Studies, 15 (2002) 413-444.

Lowry, Michelle, “Why Does IPO Fluctuate So Much?” Journal of Financial Economics, 67 (January 2003) 3-40.

Lowry, Michelle and Kevin J. Murphy, “Executive stock options and IPO underpricing,” Journal of Financial Economics, 85 (July 2007) 39-65.

Lowry, Michelle and Shu, Susan, “Litigation Risk and IPO Underpricing,” Journal of Financial Economics, 65 (September 2002) 309-335.

Lyandres, Evgeny, Le Sun, and Lu Zhang, “The New Issues Puzzle: Testing the Investment-Based Explanation,” Review of Financial Studies, 21 (2008) 2825-2855.

Megginson, William L. and Kathleen A. Weiss, “Venture Capitalist Certification in Initial Public Offerings,” Journal of Finance, 46 (July 1991) 879-903.

Mello, Antonio S. and John E. Parsons, “Going Public and the Ownership Structure of the Firm,” Journal of Financial Economics, 49 (July 1998) 79-109.

Metrick, Andrew, and Ayako Yasuda, “The Economics of Private Equity Funds,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 2303-2341.

Michaely, Roni, and W. H. Shaw, “The Pricing of Initial Public Offerings: Tests of Adverse-Selection and Signaling Theories,” Review of Financial Studies, 7 (1994) 279-319.

Mikkelson, Wayne H., Partch, M. Megan, and Shah, Kshitij, “Ownership and Operating Performance of Companies That Go Public,” Journal of Financial Economics, 44 (June 1997) 281-307.

Muscarella, Chris J. and Michael R. Vetsuypens, “A Simple Test of Baron’s Model of IPO Underpricing,” Journal of Financial Economics, 24 (September 1989) 125-135.

Nelson, Lee, “Persistence and Reversal in Herd Behavior: Theory and Application to the Decision to Go Public,” Review of Financial Studies, 15 (2002) 65-95.

Nimalendran, M., Jay R. Ritter and Donghang Zhang, “Do today's trades affect tomorrow's IPO allocations?” Journal of Financial Economics, 84 (April 2007) 87-109.

Pagano, Marco Fabio Panetta, and, and Luigi Zingales, “Why Do Companies Go Public? An Empirical Analysis,” Journal of Finance, 53 (February 1998) 27–64.

Pástor, Ľuboš, and Pietro Veronesi, “Rational IPO Waves,” Journal of Finance, 60 (August 2005) 1713–1757.

Pástor, Ľuboš, Lucian A. Taylor, and Pietro Veronesi, “Entrepreneurial Learning, the IPO Decision, and the Post-IPO Drop in Firm Profitability,” Review of Financial Studies, 22 (2009) 3005-3046.

Purnanandam, Amiyatosh K., and Bhaskaran Swaminathan, “Are IPOs Really Underpriced?” Review of Financial Studies,17 (2004) 811-848.

Puri, Manju, “Commercial Banks as Underwriters: Implications for the Going Public Process,” Journal of Financial Economics, 54 (November 1999) 133-163.

Puri,  Manju, and Rebecca Zarutskie, “On the Life Cycle Dynamics of Venture-Capital- and Non-Venture-Capital-Financed Firms,” Journal of Finance, 67 (December 2012) 2247–2293.

Rajan, Raghuram, and Henri Servaes, “Analyst Following of Initial Public Offerings,” Journal of Finance, 52 (June 1997) 507–529.

Reuter, Jonathan, “Are IPO Allocations for Sale? Evidence from Mutual Funds,” Journal of Finance, 61 (October 2006) 2289–2324.

Ritter, Jay R., “The ‘Hot Issue’ Market of 1980,” Journal of Business, 57 (April 1984) 215-240.

Ritter, Jay R., “The Long-Run Performance of Initial Public Offerings,” Journal of Finance, 46 (March 1991) 3-27.

Ritter, Jay R. and Donghang Zhang, “Affiliated mutual funds and the allocation of initial public offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 86 (November 2007 337-368.

Schenone, Carola, “The Effect of Banking Relationships on the Firm's IPO Underpricing,” Journal of Finance, 59 (December 2004) 2903–2958.

Schultz, Paul, “Pseudo Market Timing and the Long-Run Underperformance of IPOs,” Journal of Finance, 58 (April 2003) 483–518.

Sherman, Ann E., “IPOs and long-term relationships: an advantage of book building,” Review of Financial Studies, 13 (2000) 697-714.

Sherman, Ann E., “Global Trends in IPO Methods: Book Building Versus Auctions with Endogenous Entry,” Journal of Financial Economics, 78 (December 2005) 615-649.

Sherman, Ann E. and Titman, Sheridan, “Building the IPO Order Book: Underpricing and Participation Limits with Costly Information,” Journal of Financial Economics, 65 (July 2002) 3-29.

Smart, Scott B., and Chad J Zutter, “Control as a motivation for underpricing: a comparison of dual and single-class IPOs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 69 (July 2003) 85-110.

Sørensen, Morten, “How Smart Is Smart Money? A Two-Sided Matching Model of Venture Capital,” Journal of Finance, 62 (December 2007) 2725–2762.

Stoughton, Neal M. and Josef  Zechner, “IPO-mechanisms, monitoring and ownership structure,” Journal of Financial Economics, 49 (July 1998) 45-77.

Teoh, Siew Hong, Ivo Welch, and T.J. Wong, ‘Earnings Management and the Long-Run Market Performance of Initial Public Offerings,” Journal of Finance, 53 (December 1998) 1935-1974.

Tian, Xuan, “The causes and consequences of venture capital stage financing,” Journal of Financial Economics, 101 (July 2011) 132-159.

Tinic, Seha M., “Anatomy of Initial Public Offerings of Common Stock,” Journal of Finance, 43 (September 1988) 789-822.

Wang, Tracy Yue, Andrew Winton, and Xiaoyun Yu, “Corporate Fraud and Business Conditions: Evidence from IPOs,” Journal of Finance, 65 (December 2010) 2255–2292.

Welch, Ivo, “Sequential Sales, Learning, and Cascades,” Journal of Finance, 47 (June 1992) 695–732.

Yung, Chris, “IPOs with Buy- and Sell-Side Information Production: The Dark Side of Open Sales,” Review of Financial Studies, 18 (2005) 327-347.

 


III.           Primary Distributions of Seasoned Stock, Underwriting, Rights and Private Placements

*Asquith, Paul and David W. Mullins, Jr., “Equity Issues and Offering Dilution,” Journal of Financial Economics, 15 (January 1986) 61-89.

*Billett,Matthew T., Ioannis V. Floros, and Jon A. Garfinkel, “At The Market (ATM) Offerings,” 2012.

*Henry, Tyler R., and Jennifer L. Koski, “Short Selling Around Seasoned Equity Offerings,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 4389-4418.

Altınkılıç, Oya, and Robert S Hansen, “Are there economies of scale in underwriting fees? Evidence of rising external financing costs,” Review of Financial Studies, 13 (2000) 191-218.

Altınkılıç, Oya, and Robert S Hansen, “Discounting and underpricing in seasoned equity offers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 69 (August 2003) 285-323.

Barclay, Michael J., Holderness, Clifford G. and Sheehan, Dennis P., “Private Placements and Managerial Entrenchment,” working paper, University of Rochester, (2003).

Bhagat, Sanjai, “The Evidence on Shelf Registration,” Midland Corporate Finance Journal, 2 (Spring 1984) 6-12.

Bohren, Oyvind, Eckbo, B. Espen, and Michalsen, Dag, “Why Underwrite Rights Offerings? Some New Evidence,” Journal of Financial Economics, 46 (November 1997) 223-261.

Burch, Timothy R., Vikram Nanda and Vincent Warther, “Does It Pay To Be Loyal? An Empirical Analysis of Underwriting Relationships and Fees,” Journal of Financial Economics, 77 (September 2005) 673-699.

Carlson, Murray, Adlai Fisher, and Ron Giammarino, “SEO Risk Dynamics,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 4026-4077.

Chaplinsky, Susan, and David Haushalter, “Financing under Extreme Risk: Contract Terms and Returns to Private Investments in Public Equity,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 2789-2820.

Chemmanur, Thomas J., Shan He, Gang Hu, “The role of institutional investors in seasoned equity offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 94 (December 2009) 384-411.

Chemmanur, Thomas, An Yan, “Product market advertising and new equity issues,” Journal of Financial Economics, 92 (April 2009) 40-65.

Choe, Hyuk, Ronald W. Masulis, and Vikram Nanda, “Common Stock Offerings Across the Business Cycle,” Journal of Empirical Finance, 1 (June 1993) 3-31.

Cooney, John W., Hideaki Kiyoshi Kato, and James S. Schallheim, “Underwriter Certification and Japanese Seasoned Equity Issues,” Review of Financial Studies, 16 (2003) 949-982.

Cornett, Marcia Millon, Hamid Mehran, and Hassan Tehranian, “Are Financial Markets Overly Optimistic About The Prospects Of Firms That Issue Equity? Evidence From Voluntary Versus Involuntary Equity Issuances By Banks,” Journal of Finance, 53 (1998) 2139-2159.

Cronqvist, Henrik, and Mattias Nilsson, “The Choice Between Rights Offerings and Private Equity Placements,” Journal of Financial Economics, 78 (November 2005) 375-407.

DeAngelo, Harry, Linda DeAngelo, René M. Stulz, “Seasoned equity offerings, market timing, and the corporate lifecycle,” Journal of Financial Economics, 95 (March 2010) 275-295.

Eberhart, Allan C., and Akhtar Siddique, “The Long-Term Performance of Corporate Bonds (and Stocks) Following Seasoned Equity Offerings,” Review of Financial Studies, 15 (2002) 1385-1406.

Eckbo, B.Espen, Ronald W. Masulis, Øyvind Norli, “Seasoned public offerings: resolution of the ‘new issues puzzle’,” Journal of Financial Economics, 56 (May 2000) 251-291.

Erel, Isil, Brandon Julio, Woojin Kim, and Michael S. Weisbach, “Macroeconomic Conditions and Capital Raising,” Review of Financial Studies, 25 (2012) 341-376.

Fama, Eugene F. and Kenneth R. French, “Financing Decisions: Who Issues Stock?Journal of Financial Economics, 76 (June 2005) 549-582.

Gao, Xiaohui, Jay R. Ritter, “The marketing of seasoned equity offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 97 (July 2010) 33-52.

Giammarino, R. M. and T Lewis, “A theory of negotiated equity financing,” Review of Financial Studies, 1 (1988) 265-288.

Hansen, R. S., “The demise of the rights issue.” Review of Financial Studies, 1 (1988) 289-309.

 

Hansen, R. S. and J. M. Pinkerton, “Direct Equity Financing: A Resolution of a Paradox,” Journal of Finance, 37 (June 1982) 651-665.

Hertzel, Michael G., Mark R. Huson, Robert Parrino, “Public market staging: The timing of capital infusions in newly public firms,” Journal of Financial Economics, 106 (October 2012) 72-90.

Kim, Woojin, Michael S. Weisbach, “Motivations for public equity offers: An international perspective,” Journal of Financial Economics, 87 (February 2008) 281-307.

Kothare, Meeta, “The effects of equity issues on ownership structure and stock liquidity: A comparison of rights and public offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 43 (January 1997) 131-148.

Krigman, Laurie, Wayne H. Shaw and Kent L. Womack, “Why Do Firms Switch Underwriters?” Journal of Financial Economics, 60 (May 2001) 245-284.

Logue, Dennis E., and Tinic, Seha M., “Optimal Choice of Contracting Methods: Negotiated Versus Competitive Underwritings Revisited,” Journal of Financial Economics, 51 (March 1999) 451-471.

Loughran, Tim and Jay R. Ritter, “The Operating Performance of Firms Conducting Seasoned Equity Offerings,” Journal of Finance, 52 (December 1997) 1823-1850.

Masulis, Ronald W., Ashok N. Korwar, “Seasoned equity offerings: An empirical investigation,” Journal of Financial Economics, 15 (January–February 1986) 91-118.

Myers, Stewart and N. Majluf, “Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have Information That Investors Do Not Have,” Journal of Financial Economics, 13 (June 1984) 187-221.

Narayanan, Rajesh P., Kasturi P. Rangan and Nanda K. Rangan, “The Role of Syndicate Structure in Bank Underwriting,” Journal of Financial Economics, 72 (June 2004) 555-580.

 

Parsons, John E. and Artur Raviv, “Underpricing of Seasoned New Issues,” Journal of Financial Economics, 14 (September 1985) 187-221.

Rangan, Srinivasan, “Earnings Management and the Performance of Seasoned Equity Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 50 (October 1998) 101-122.

Scholes, Myron S. and Mark A. Wolfson, “Decentralized Investment Banking:  The Case of Discount Dividend-Reinvestment and Stock-Purchase Plans,” Journal of Financial Economics, 24 (September 1989) 7-35.

Siegel, Jordan, “Can Foreign Firms Bond Themselves Effectively by Renting U.S. Securities Laws?” Journal of Financial Economics, 75 (February 2005) 319-359.

Smith, Clifford W., “Alternative Methods for Raising Capital: Rights versus Underwritten Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 5 (December 1977) 273-307.

Spiess, D. Katherine and John Affleck-Graves, “Underperformance in Long-run Stock Returns Following Seasoned Equity Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 38 (July 1995) 243-267.

Teoh, Siew Hong, Ivo Welch, and T. J. Wong, “Earnings Management and the Underperformance of Seasoned Equity Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 50 (October 1998) 63-99.

Wu, Yi Lin, “The Choice of Equity-Selling Mechanisms,” Journal of Financial Economics, 74 (October 2004) 93-119.

Wruck, Karen H., “Equity Ownership Concentration and Firm Value: Evidence from Private Equity Financings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 23 (June 1989) 3-28.

 

IV.       Corporate Bond Financing

 


Brealey, Myers & Allen, Ch. 25.

Anderson, Ronald C., Mansi, Sattar A., and Reeb, David M., “Founding family ownership and the agency cost of debt,” Journal of Financial Economics, 68 (May 2003) 263-285.

Blume, Marshall E., Donald B. Keim and Sandeep A. Patel, “Returns and Volatility of Low-grade Bonds, 1977-1989,” Journal of Finance, 46 (March 1991) 49-74.

Cai, Nianyun, Jean Helwege, and Arthur Warga, “Underpricing in the Corporate Bond Market,” Review of Financial Studies, 20 (2007) 2021-2046.

Cornell, Bradford and Kevin Green, “The Investment Performance of Low-grade Bond Funds,” Journal of Finance, 46 (March 1991) 29-48.

Datta, Sudip, Mai Iskandar-Datta, and Ajay Patel, “Bank Monitoring and the Pricing of Corporate Public Debt,” Journal of Financial Economics, 51 (March 1999) 435-449.

Datta, Sudip, Mai Iskandar-Datta, and Ajay Patel, “Some Evidence on the Uniqueness of Initial Public Debt Offerings,” Journal of Finance, 55 (April 2000) 715-743.

Eckbo, B. Espen, “Valuation Effects of Corporate Debt Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 15 (January 1986) 119-151.

Fridson, Martin S., “The State of the High Yield Bond Market: Overshooting or Return to Normalcy?” Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 7 (Spring 1994) 85-97.

Helwege, Jean, “How Long Do Junk Bonds Spend in Default?” Journal of Finance, 54 (February 1999) 341-357.

Krishnaswami, Sudha, Paul A. Spindt, and Venkat Subramaniam, “Information Asymmetry, Monitoring, and the Placement Structure of Corporate Debt,” Journal of Financial Economics, 51 (March 1999) 407-434.

Linn, Scott C. and J. Michael Pinegar, “The Effect of Issuing Preferred Stock on Common and Preferred Stockholder Wealth,” Journal of Financial Economics, 22 (October 1988) 155-184.

Livingston, Miles and Glenn Williams, “Drexel Burnham Lambert's bankruptcy and the subsequent decline in underwriter fees,” Journal of Financial Economics, 84 (May 2007) 472-501.

Spiess, D. Katherine and John Affleck-Graves, “The Long-Run Performance of Stock Returns Following Debt Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 54 (October 1999) 45-73.

Vu, Joseph, “An Empirical Investigation of Calls of Non-convertible Bonds,” Journal of Financial Economics, 16 (June 1986) 235-265.


 

 

V.   Intra-Firm Exchange Offers and Recapitalizations

 

WMM, Ch. 13.

*Masulis, Ronald W., “The Effects of Capital Structure Change on Security Prices: A Study of Exchange Offers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 8 (June 1980) 139-177.

Chatterjee, Sris, Upinder S. Dhillon, and Gabriel G. Ramirez, “Coercive Tender and Exchange Offers in Distressed High-yield Debt Restructurings:  An Empirical Analysis,” Journal of Financial Economics, 38 (July 1995) 333-360.

Israel, Ronen, Aharon R. Ofer, and Daniel R. Siegel, “The Information Content of Equity-for-Debt Swaps:  An Investigation of Analyst Forecasts of Firm Cash Flows,” Journal of Financial Economics 25 (December 1989) 349-370.

McConnell, John J. and Gary G. Schlarbaum, “Evidence on the Impact of Exchange Offers on Security Prices:  The Case of Income Bonds,” Journal of Business, 54 (1981) 65-85.

Shah, Kshitij, “The Nature of Information Conveyed by Pure Capital Structure Changes,” Journal of Financial Economics, 36 (August 1994) 89-126.


VI.   Convertible Debt

*Brown, Stephen J., Bruce D. Grundy, Craig M. Lewis, and Patrick Verwijmeren, “Convertibles and Hedge Funds as Distributors of Equity Exposure,” Review of Financial Studies, 25 (2012) 3077-3112.

Brealey, Myers & Allen, Ch. 25.

Mayers, David, “Convertible Bonds: Matching Financial and Real Options,” (DC, 334-347).

Asquith, Paul and David W. Mullins, Jr., “Convertible Debt:  Corporate Call Policy and Voluntary Conversion,” Journal of Finance, 46 (September 1991) 1273-1289.

Byrd, Anthony and William T. Moore, “On the Information Content of Calls of Convertible Securities,” Journal of Business, 69 (January 1996) 89-101.

Campbell, C. J., Louis Ederington, and P. Vankudre, “Tax Shields, Sample Selection Bias, and the Information Content of Convertible Bond Calls,” Journal of Finance, 46 (September 1991) 1291-1324.

Choi, Darwin, Mila Getmansky, Brian Henderson, and Heather Tookes, “Convertible Bond Arbitrageurs as Suppliers of Capital,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 2492-2522.

deJong, Abe, Marie Dutordoir, Patrick Verwijmeren, “Why do convertible issuers simultaneously repurchase stock? An arbitrage-based explanation,” Journal of Financial Economics, 100 (April 2011) 113-129.

Dunn, Kenneth B. and Kenneth M. Eades, “Voluntary Conversion of Convertible Securities and the Optimal Call Strategy,” Journal of Financial Economics, 23 (August 1989) 273-301.

Hillion, Pierre and Theo Vermaelen, “Death Spiral Convertibles,” Journal of Financial Economics, 71 (February 2004) 381-415.

Mikkelson, Wayne H., “Convertible Calls and Security Returns,” Journal of Financial Economics, 9 (September 1981) 237-264.

Ofer, A., and A. Natarajan, “Convertible Call Policies:  An Empirical Analysis of Information Signaling Hypothesis,” Journal of Financial Economics, 19 (September 1987) 91-108.

Singh, Ajay K., Arnold R. Cowan, and Nandkumar Nayar, “Underwritten Calls of Convertible Bonds,” Journal of Financial Economics, 29 (March 1991) 173-196.

Stein, Jeremy C., “Convertible bonds as backdoor equity financing,” Journal of Financial Economics, 32 (August 1992) 3-21.


 


 

VII.   Repurchase Tender Offers

WMM, Ch. 18.

McNally, William, "Who Wins in Large Stock Buybacks - Those Who Sell Or Those Who Hold?" (DC, 224-234).

*Dann, Larry Y., “Common Stock Repurchases: An Analysis of Returns to Bondholders and Stockholders,” Journal of Financial Economics, 9 (June 1981) 113-138.

*Comment, Robert and Gregg A. Jarrell, “The Relative Signaling Power of Dutch-Auction and Fixed Price Self-Tender Offers and Open-Market Share Repurchases,” Journal of Finance, 46 (September 1991) 1243-1271.

*Guay, Wayne and Harford, Jarrad, “The Cash-flow Permanence and Information Content of Dividend Increases versus Repurchases,” Journal of Financial Economics, 57 (September 2000) 385-415.

*Hong, Harrison, Jiang Wang, Jialin Yu, “Firms as buyers of last resort,” Journal of Financial Economics, 88 (April 2008) 119-145.

*Dittmar, Amy and Laura Field, “Can managers time the market? Evidence using repurchase price data”

Bargeron, Leonce, Manoj Kulchania, Shawn Thomas, “Accelerated share repurchases,” Journal of Financial Economics, 101 (July 2011) 69-89.

Brockman, Paul and Chung, Dennis Y., “Managerial Timing and Corporate Liquidity: Evidence from Actual Share Repurchases,” Journal of Financial Economics, 61 (September 2001) 417-448.

Chen, Sheng-Syan, Yanzhi Wang, “Financial constraints and share repurchases,” Journal of Financial Economics, 105 (August 2012) 311-331.

Hodrick, Laurie Simon, “Does stock price elasticity affect corporate financial decisions?” Journal of Financial Economics, 52 (May 1999) 225-256.

Ikenberry, David, Josef Lakonishok, and Theo Vermaelen, “Market Underreaction to Open Market Share Repurchases,” Journal of Financial Economics, 39 (October 1995) 181-208.

Jagannathan, Murali, Stephens, Clifford P., and Weisbach, Michael S., “Financial Flexibility and the Choice between Dividends and Stock Repurchases,” Journal of Financial Economics, 57 (September 2000) 355-384.

Kahle, Kathleen M., “When a Buyback Isn't a Buyback: Open Market Repurchases and Employee Options,” Journal of Financial Economics, 63 (February 2002) 235-261.

Lie, Erik and John J. McConnell, “Earnings Signals in Fixed-Price and Dutch Auction Self-tender Offers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 49 (August 1998) 161-186.

Louis, Henock and Hal White, “Do managers intentionally use repurchase tender offers to signal private information? Evidence from firm financial reporting behavior,” Journal of Financial Economics, 85 (July 2007) 205-233.

Massa, Massimo, Zahid Rehman and Theo Vermaelen, “Mimicking repurchases,” Journal of Financial Economics, 84 (June 2007) 624-666.

Masulis, Ronald W., “Stock Repurchase by Tender Offer: An Analysis of the Causes of Common Stock Price Changes,” Journal of Finance, 35 (May 1980) 305-319.

Nohel, Tom and Vefa Tarhan, “Share repurchases and firm performance: new evidence on the agency costs of free cash flow,” Journal of Financial Economics, 49 (August 1998) 187-222.

Peyer, Urs C. and Theo Vermaelen, “The Many Facets of Privately Negotiated Stock Repurchases” Journal of Financial Economics, 75 (February 2005) 361-395.

Vermaelen, Theo, “Common Stock Repurchases and Market Signaling,” Journal of Financial Economics, 9 (June 1981) 139-183.

 


VIII.  Interfirm Tender Offers, Mergers and Corporate Control

WMM, Ch. 1, 4, 6, and 8.

Brealey, Myers & Allen, Ch. 32 and 34.

Jensen, Michael C., “The Modern Industrial Revolution, Exit, and the Failure of Internal Control Systems,” (DC, 509-528).

*Schwert, G. William, “Markup Pricing in Mergers and Acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 41 (June 1996) 153-192.

*Heitzman, Shane and Sandy Klasa, “Private information arrival, trading activity, and price formation: Evidence from nonpublic merger negotiations”

*Moeller, Sara B., Frederik P. Schlingemann and René M. Stulz, “Firm Size and the Gains from AcquisitionsJournal of Financial Economics, 73 (August 2004) 201-228.

*Maksimovic, Vojislav, Gordon Phillips, N.R. Prabhala, “Post-merger restructuring and the boundaries of the firm,” Journal of Financial Economics, 102 (November 2011) 317-343.

*Safieddine, Assem and Sheridan Titman, “Leverage and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Unsuccessful Takeovers,” Journal of Finance, 54 (April 1999) 547-580.

*John, Kose, Anzhela Knyazeva, and Diana Knyazeva, "Employee Rights and Acquisitions"

*Ahern, Kenneth R., “Bargaining power and industry dependence in mergers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 103 (March 2012) 530-550.

*Fu, Fangjian, Leming Lin, and Micah S. Officer, “Acquisitions driven by stock overvaluation: Are they good deals?” Journal of Financial Economics, (2013) .

*Duchin, Ran, Breno Schmidt, “Riding the merger wave: Uncertainty, reduced monitoring, and bad acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 107 (January 2013) 69-88.

Aktas, Nihat, Eric de Bodt, Richard Roll, “Learning from repetitive acquisitions: Evidence from the time between deals,” Journal of Financial Economics, (2013) .

Aktas, Nihat, Eric de Bodt, Richard Roll, “Negotiations under the threat of an auction,” Journal of Financial Economics, 98 (November 2010) 241-255.

Asquith, Paul and E. Han Kim, “The Impact of Merger Bids on the Participating Firm’s Security Holders,” Journal of Finance, 37 (December 1982) 1209-1228.

Baker, Malcolm, Joshua Coval, Jeremy C. Stein, “Corporate financing decisions when investors take the path of least resistance,” Journal of Financial Economics, 84 (May 2007) 266-298.

Baker, Malcolm, Xin Pan, Jeffrey Wurgler, “The effect of reference point prices on mergers and acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 106 (October 2012) 49-71.

Baker, Malcolm and Savaoglu, Serkan, “Limited Arbitrage in Mergers and Acquisitions” Journal of Financial Economics, 64 (April 2002) 91-115.

Bates, Thomas W., Michael L. Lemmon and James S. Linck, “Shareholder wealth effects and bid negotiation in freeze-out deals: Are minority shareholders left out in the cold?” Journal of Financial Economics, 81 (September 2006) 681-708.

Benson, David, Rosemarie H. Ziedonis, “Corporate venture capital and the returns to acquiring portfolio companies,” Journal of Financial Economics, 98 (December 2010) 478-499.

Betton, Sandra, B. Espen Eckbo, Karin S. Thorburn, “Merger negotiations and the toehold puzzle,” Journal of Financial Economics, 91 (February 2009) 158-178.

Bhagat, Sanjai, James Brickley, and U. Loewenstein, “The Pricing Effects of Interfirm Cash Tender Offers,” Journal of Finance, 42 (September 1987) 965-986.

Bhagat, Sanjai, Ming Dong, David Hirshleifer, and Robert Noah, “Do Tender Offers Create Value? New Methods and Evidence,” Journal of Financial Economics, 76 (April 2005) 3-60.

Bharadwaj, Anu, and Shivdasani, Anil, "Valuation effects of bank financing in acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 67 (January 2003) 113-148.

Bhattacharyya, Sugato, Amrita Nain, “Horizontal acquisitions and buying power: A product market analysis,” Journal of Financial Economics, 99 (January 2011) 97-115.

Bodnaruk, Andriy, Massimo Massa, and Andrei Simonov, “Investment Banks as Insiders and the Market for Corporate Control,” Review of Financial Studies, 22 (2009) 4989-5026.

Boone, Audra L., J. Harold Mulherin, “Do auctions induce a winner's curse? New evidence from the corporate takeover market,” Journal of Financial Economics, 89 (July 2008) 1-13.

Bradley, Michael, A. Desai, and E. Han Kim, “The Rationale Behind Interfirm Tender Offers: Information or Synergy?,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11 (April 1983) 183-206.

Bradley, Michael, A. Desai, and E. Han Kim, “Synergistic Gains from Corporate Acquisitions and Their Division Between the Stockholders of Target and Acquiring Firms,” Journal of Financial Economics, 21 (May 1988) 3-40.

Brown, David T. and Michael D. Ryngaert, “The Mode of Acquisition in Takeovers: Taxes and Asymmetric Information,” Journal of Finance, 46 (June 1991) 653-669.

Burch, Timothy R., “Locking Out Rival Bidders: The Use of Lockup Options in Corporate Mergers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 60 (April 2001) 103-141.

Chang, Saeyoung, “Takeovers of Privately Held Targets, Methods of Payment, and Bidder Returns,” Journal of Finance, 53 (April 1998) 773-784.

Chen, Xia, Jarrad Harford and Kai Li, “Monitoring: Which institutions matter?” Journal of Financial Economics, 86 (November 2007) 279-305.

Cooney, John W., Thomas Moeller, Mike Stegemoller, “The underpricing of private targets,” Journal of Financial Economics, 93 (July 2009) 51-66.

Crabbe, Leland, “Event Risk:  An Analysis of Losses to Bondholders and “Super Poison Put” Bond Covenants,” Journal of Finance, 46 (June 1991) 689-706.

DeAngelo, Harry and DeAngelo, Linda, “Ancient Redwoods and the Politics of Finance: The Hostile Takeover of the Pacific Lumber Company,” Journal of Financial Economics, 47 (January 1998) 3-53.

Denis, David J. and Jan M. Serrano, “Active Investors and Management Turnover Following Unsuccessful Control Contests,” Journal of Financial Economics, 40 (February 1996) 239-266.

Dittmar, Amy K., Robert F. Dittmar, “The timing of financing decisions: An examination of the correlation in financing waves,” Journal of Financial Economics, 90 (October 2008) 59-83.

Dodd, Peter, “Merger Proposals, Management Discretion, and Stockholder Wealth,” Journal of Financial Economics, 8 (June 1980) 105-137.

Doidge, Craig, G. Andrew Karolyi and Rene M. Stulz, “Why do countries matter so much for corporate governance?” Journal of Financial Economics, 86 (October 2007) 1-39.

Fallick, Bruce C. and Kevin A. Hassett, “Unionization and Acquisitions,” Journal of Business, 69 (January 1996) 51-73.

Ferreira, Miguel A., Massimo Massa, and Pedro Matos, “Shareholders at the Gate? Institutional Investors and Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 601-644.

Franks, Julian, Robert Harris, and Sheridan Titman, “The Postmerger Share-Price Performance of Acquiring Firms,” Journal of Financial Economics, 29 (March 1991) 81-96.

Fu, Fangjian, Leming Lin, Micah S. Officer, “Acquisitions driven by stock overvaluation: Are they good deals?” Journal of Financial Economics,  (2013) .

Garvey, Gerald T. and Gordon Hanka, “Capital structure and corporate control: The effect of antitakeover statutes on firm leverage,” Journal of Finance, 54 (April 1999) 519-546.

Garfinkel, Jon A., Kristine Watson Hankins, “The role of risk management in mergers and merger waves,” Journal of Financial Economics, 101 (September 2011) 515-532.

Gaspar, José-Miguel, Massimo Massa and Pedro Matos, “Shareholder Investment Horizons and the Market for Corporate Control,” Journal of Financial Economics, 76 (April 2005) 135-165.

Goldman, Eitan and Jun Qian, “Optimal Toeholds in Takeover Contests,” Journal of Financial Economics, 77 (August 2005) 321-346.

Grinstein, Yaniv and Paul Hribar, “CEO Compensation and Incentives: Evidence from M&A BonusesJournal of Financial Economics, 73 (July 2004) 119-143.

Harford, Jarrad, “Corporate Cash Reserves and Acquisitions,” Journal of Finance, 54 (December 1999) 1969-1997.

Harford, Jarrad, “What Drives Merger Waves?Journal of Financial Economics, 77 (September 2005) 529-560.

Harford, Jarrad, Mark Humphery-Jenner, Ronan Powell, “The sources of value destruction in acquisitions by entrenched managers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 106 (November 2012) 247-261.

Harford, Jarrad, Dirk Jenter, Kai Li, “Institutional cross-holdings and their effect on acquisition decisions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 99 (January 2011) 27-39.

Hayn, Carla, “Tax Attributes as Determinants of Shareholder Gains in Corporate Acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 23 (June 1989) 121-153.

Heitzman, Shane, “Equity grants to target CEOs during deal negotiations,” Journal of Financial Economics, 102 (November 2011) 251-271.

Holderness, Clifford G. and Dennis P. Sheehan, “Raiders or Saviors?:  The Evidence on Six Controversial Investors,” Journal of Financial Economics, 14 (December 1985) 555-579.

Houston, Joel F., James, Christopher M., and Ryngaert, Michael D., “Where Do Merger Gains Come From? Bank Mergers from the Perspective of Insiders and Outsiders,” Journal of Financial Economics, 60 (May 2001) 285-331.

Hsieh, Jim and Ralph A. Walkling, “Determinants and Implications of Arbitrage Holdings in Acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 77 (September 2005) 605-648.

Jarrell, Gregg A., James A. Brickley, and Jeffry M. Netter, “The Market for Corporate Control:  The Empirical Evidence Since 1980,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2 (1988) 49-68.

Jensen, Michael C., “Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers,” American Economic Review, 76 (May 1986) 323-329.

Jensen, Michael C. and Richard S. Ruback, “The Market for Corporate Control:  The Scientific Evidence,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11 (April 1983) 5-50.

Jensen, Michael C. and Jerold W. Warner, “The Distribution of Power Among Corporate Managers, Shareholders, and Directors,” Journal of Financial Economics, 20 (January 1988) 3-24.

Kisgen, Darren J., Jun Qian, Weihong Song, “Are fairness opinions fair? The case of mergers and acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 91 (February 2009) 179-207.

Lambrecht, Bart M., “The Timing and Terms of Mergers Motivated by Economies of Scale,” Journal of Financial Economics, 72 (April 2004) 41-62.

Lang, Larry H. P., René M. Stulz, and Ralph A. Walkling, “Managerial Performance, Tobin’s q, and the Gains from Successful Tender Offers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 24 (September 1989) 137-154.

Lang, Larry H. P., René M. Stulz, and Ralph A. Walkling, “A Test of the Free Cash Flow Hypothesis: The Case of Bidder Returns,” Journal of Financial Economics, 29 (October 1991) 315-335.

La Porta, Rafael, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, and Andrei Shleifer, “Corporate Ownership Around the World,” Journal of Finance, 54 (April 1999) 471-517.

Li, Xiaoyang, “Productivity, restructuring, and the gains from takeovers,” Journal of Financial Economics,  (2013).

Lin, Chen, Micah S. Officer, Hong Zou, “Directors' and officers' liability insurance and acquisition outcomes,” Journal of Financial Economics, 102 (December 2011) 507-525.

Lys, Thomas and Linda Vincent, “An Analysis of Value Destruction in AT&T’s Acquisition of NCR,” Journal of Financial Economics, 39 (October 1995) 353-378.

Maquieira, Carlos P., William L. Megginson, and Lance Nail, “Wealth creation versus wealth redistributions in pure stock-for-stock mergers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 47 (April 1998) 3-33.

Malmendier, Ulrike, and Geoffrey Tate, “Who makes acquisitions? CEO overconfidence and the market's reaction,” Journal of Financial Economics, 89 (July 2008) 20-43.

Matvos, Gregor, and Michael Ostrovsky, “Cross-ownership, returns, and voting in mergers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 89 (September 2008) 391-403.

McLaughlin, Robyn M., “Investment-Banking Contracts in Tender Offers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 28 (November 1990) 209-232.

Mikkelson, Wayne H. and Richard S. Ruback, “An Empirical Analysis of the Interfirm Equity Investment Process,” Journal of Financial Economics, 14 (December 1985) 523-553.

Mitchell, Mark, and Todd Pulvino, “Characteristics of Risk and Return in Risk Arbitrage,” Journal of Finance, 56 (December 2001) 2135-2175.

Mitchell, Mark, Todd Pulvino, and Erik Stafford, “Limited Arbitrage in Equity Markets,” Journal of Finance, 57 (April 2002) 551-584.

Mitchell, Mark, Todd Pulvino, and Erik Stafford, “Price Pressure around Mergers,” Journal of Finance, 59 (February 2004) 31-63.

Mitchell, Mark, and Todd Pulvino, “Arbitrage crashes and the speed of capital,” Journal of Financial Economics, 104 (June 2012) 469-490.

Moeller, Sara B., Frederik P. Schlingemann, and René M. Stulz, “How Do Diversity of Opinion and Information Asymmetry Affect Acquirer Returns?” Review of Financial Studies, 20 (2007) 2047-2078.

Moeller, Thomas, “Let's Make a Deal! How Shareholder Control Impacts Merger Payoffs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 76 (April 2005) 167-190.

Morellec, Erwan and Alexei Zhdanov, “The Dynamics of Mergers and Acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 77 (September 2005) 649-672.

Morellec, Erwan, Alexei Zhdanov, “Financing and takeovers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 87 (March 2008) 556-581.

Netter, Jeffry, Mike Stegemoller, and M. Babajide Wintoki, ”Implications of Data Screens on Merger and Acquisition Analysis: A Large Sample Study of Mergers and Acquisitions from 1992 to 2009,” Review of Financial Studies, 24 (2011) 2316-2357.

Officer, Micah S., “Termination fees in mergers and acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 69 (2003) 431-467.

Officer, Micah S., “Collars and Renegotiation in Mergers and Acquisitions,” Journal of Finance, 59 (December 2004) 2719-2743.

Officer, Micah S., “The price of corporate liquidity: Acquisition discounts for unlisted targets,” Journal of Financial Economics, 83 (March 2007) 571-598.

Rhodes–Kropf, Matthew, David T. Robinson, and S. Viswanathan, “Valuation Waves and Merger Activity: The Empirical Evidence,” Journal of Financial Economics, 77 (September 2005) 561-603.

Rossi, Stefano and Paolo F. Volpin, “Cross-country Determinants of Mergers and Acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 74 (November 2004) 277-304.

Ruback, Richard S., “The Conoco Takeover and Stockholder Returns,” Sloan Management Review, 23 (Winter 1982) 13-32.

Ruback, Richard S., “The Cities Service Takeover:  A Case Study,” Journal of Finance, 38 (May 1983) 319-330.

Schwert, G. William, “Hostility in Takeovers: In the Eyes of the Beholder,” Journal of Finance, 55 (December 2000) 2599-2640.

Shleifer, Andrei, Robert W. Vishny, “Stock market driven acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, 70 (December 2003) 295-311.


IX.    Going Private/Leveraged Buyouts

WMM, Ch. 16.

*Bharath, Sreedhar T., and Amy K. Dittmar, “Why Do Firms Use Private Equity to Opt Out of Public Markets?” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 1771-1818.

*Officer, Micah S., Oguzhan Ozbas, Berk A. Sensoy, “Club deals in leveraged buyouts,” Journal of Financial Economics, 98 (November 2010) 214-240.

*Muscarella, Chris J. and Michael R. Vetsuypens, “Efficiency and Organizational Structure:  A Study of Reverse LBOs,” Journal of Finance, 45 (December 1990) 1389-1413.

Baker, George P. and Karen H. Wruck, “Lessons from a Middle Market LBO:  The Case of the O. M. Scott,” (DC, 567-579).

Acharya, Viral V., Timothy C. Johnson, “More insiders, more insider trading: Evidence from private-equity buyouts,” Journal of Financial Economics, 98 (December 2010) 500-523.

Asquith, Paul and Thierry W. Wizman, “Event Risk, Covenants, and Bondholder Returns in Leveraged Buyouts,” Journal of Financial Economics, 27 (September 1990) 195-213.

Cotter, James F. and Peck, Sarah W., “The Structure of Debt and Active Equity Investors: The Case of the Buyout Specialist,” Journal of Financial Economics, 59 (January 2001) 101-147.

DeAngelo, Harry, Linda DeAngelo, and Edward M. Rice, “Going Private:  Minority Freezeouts and Stockholder Wealth,” Journal of Law and Economics, 27 (October 1984) 367-401.

DeAngelo, Harry, Linda DeAngelo and Stuart C. Gilson, “The Collapse of First Executive Corporation:  Junk Bonds, Adverse Publicity, and the “Run on the Bank” Phenomenon,” Journal of Financial Economics, 36 (December 1994) 287-336.

Demiroglu, Cem, Christopher M. James, “The role of private equity group reputation in LBO financing,” Journal of Financial Economics, 96 (May 2010) 306-330.

Denis, David J. and Diane K. Denis, “Causes of Financial Distress Following Leveraged Recapitalizations,” Journal of Financial Economics, 27 (February 1995) 129-157.

Healy, Paul M. and Krishna G. Palepu, “The Challenges of Investor Communication:  The Case of CUC International, Inc.,” Journal of Financial Economics, 38 (June 1995) 111-140.

Ivashina, Victoria, and Anna Kovner, “The Private Equity Advantage: Leveraged Buyout Firms and Relationship Banking,” Review of Financial Studies, 24 (2011) 2462-2498.

Jensen, Michael C., “Eclipse of the Public Corporation,” Harvard Business Review, (September-October 1989) 61-74.

Kaplan, Steven N., “The Effects of Management Buyouts on Operating Performance and Value,” Journal of Financial Economics, 24 (October 1989) 217-254.

Kaplan, Steven N., “The Staying Power of Leveraged Buyouts,” Journal of Financial Economics, 29 (October 1991) 287-313.

Kaplan, Steven N. and Richard S. Ruback, “The Valuation of Cash Flow Forecasts:  An Empirical Analysis,” Journal of Finance, 50 (September 1995) 1059-1093.

Lehn, Kenneth, Jeffry Netter and Annette B. Poulsen, “Consolidating Corporate Control:  Dual-Class Recapitalizations versus Leveraged Buyouts,” Journal of Financial Economics, 27 (September 1990) 557-580.

Lichtenberg, Frank R. and Donald Siegel, “The Effects of Leveraged Buyouts on Productivity and Related Aspects of Firm Behavior,” Journal of Financial Economics, 27 (September 1990) 165-194.

Marais, Laurentius, Katherine Schipper, and Abbie Smith, “Wealth Effects of Going Private for Senior Securities,” Journal of Financial Economics, 23 (June 1989) 155-191.

Mehran, Hamid, and Stavros Peristiani, “Financial Visibility and the Decision to Go Private,” Review of Financial Studies, 23 (2010) 519-547.

Phalippou, Ludovic, and Oliver Gottschalg, “The Performance of Private Equity Funds,” Review of Financial Studies, 22 (2009) 1747-1776.


X.     Defensive Tactics

WMM, Ch. 19.

*Comment, Robert and G. William Schwert, “Poison or Placebo?  Evidence on the Deterrence and Wealth Effects of Modern Antitakeover Measures,” Journal of Financial Economics, 39 (September 1995) 3-43.

Bebchuk, Lucian A., and Alma Cohen, “The Costs of Entrenched Boards,” Journal of Financial Economics, 78 (November 2005) 409-433.

Bhagat, Sanjai and R. H. Jefferis, “Voting Power in the Proxy Process: The Case of Antitakeover Charter Amendments,” Journal of Financial Economics, 30 (November 1991) 193-225.

Bradley, Michael and Lee M. Wakeman, “The Wealth Effects of Targeted Share Repurchases,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11 (April 1983) 301-328.

Brickley, James A., Jeffrey L. Coles, and Rory L. Terry, “Outside Directors and the Adoption of Poison Pills,” Journal of Financial Economics, 35 (June 1994) 371-390.

Brickley, James A., Ronald C. Lease, and Clifford W. Smith, “Corporate Voting: Evidence from Charter Amendment Proposals,” Journal of Corporate Finance, 1 (March 1994) 5-31.

Cook, Douglas O. and John C. Easterwood, “Poison Put Bonds:  An Analysis of Their Economic Role,” Journal of Finance, 49 (December 1994) 1905-1920.

Cotter, James F. and Marc Zenner, “How Managerial Wealth Affects the Tender Offer Process,” Journal of Financial Economics, 35 (February 1994) 63-97.

Dann, Larry Y. and Harry DeAngelo, “Standstill Agreements, Privately Negotiated Stock Repurchases, and the Market for Corporate Control,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11  (April 1983) 275-300.

Dann, Larry and Harry DeAngelo, “Corporate Financial Policy and Corporate Control: A Study of Defensive Adjustments in Asset and Ownership Structure,” Journal of Financial Economics, 20 (January 1988) 87-127.

DeAngelo, Harry and Edward M. Rice, “Antitakeover Charter Amendments and Stockholder Wealth,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11 (April 1983) 329-359.

Denis, David J., “Defensive Changes in Corporate Payout Policy:  Share Repurchases and Special Dividends,” Journal of Finance, 45 (December 1990) 1433-1456.

Gordon, Lilli A. and John Pound, “ESOPs and Corporate Control,” Journal of Financial Economics, 27 (September 1990) 525-555.

Jarrell, Gregg A. and Annette B. Poulsen, “Shark Repellents and Stock Prices:  The Effects of Antitakeover Amendments Since 1980,” Journal of Financial Economics, 19 (September 1987) 127-168.

Kamma, S., J. Weintrop, and Peggy Weir, “Investors’ Perceptions of the Delaware Supreme Court Decision in UNOCAL v. Mesa,” Journal of Financial Economics, 20 (January 1988) 419-430.

Karpoff, Jonathan M. and Paul H. Malatesta, “The Wealth Effects of Second-generation State Takeover Legislation,” Journal of Financial Economics, 25 (December 1989) 291-322.

Linn, Scott and John J. McConnell, “An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of ‘Antitakeover’ Amendments on Common Stock Prices,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11 (April 1983) 361-399.

Malatesta, Paul H. and Ralph A. Walkling, “Poison Pill Securities:  Stockholder Wealth, Profitability, and Ownership Structure,” Journal of Financial Economics, 20 (January 1988) 347-376.

Rauh, Joshua D., “Own company stock in defined contribution pension plans: A takeover defense?” Journal of Financial Economics, 81 (August 2006) 379-410.

Ryngaert, Michael, “The Effect of Poison Pill Securities on Shareholder Wealth,” Journal of Financial Economics, 20 (January 1988) 377-417.

 

 


XI.    Antitrust Law and Regulation of the Market for Corporate Control

WMM, Ch. 2.

 

*Mitchell, Mark L. and Jeffry M. Netter, “Triggering the 1987 Stock Market Crash:  Antitakeover Provisions in the Proposed House Ways and Means Tax Bill,” Journal of Financial Economics, 24 (September 1989) 37-68.

Bittlingmayer, George, Thomas W Hazlett, “DOS Kapital: Has antitrust action against Microsoft created value in the computer industry?,” Journal of Financial Economics, 55 (March 2000) 329-359.

Daines, Robert, “Does Delaware Law Improve Firm Value?” Journal of Financial Economics, 62 (December 2001) 525-558.

Eckbo, B. Espen, “Horizontal Mergers, Collusion, and Stockholder Wealth,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11 (April 1983) 241-273.

Eckbo, B. Espen and Herwig Langohr, “Information Disclosure, Method of Payment, and Takeover Premiums:  Public and Private Tender Offers in France,” Journal of Financial Economics, 24 (October 1989) 363-403.

Fee, C. Edward and Shawn Thomas, “Sources of Gains in Horizontal Mergers: Evidence from Customer, Supplier, and Rival Firms,” Journal of Financial Economics, 74 (December 2004) 423-460.

Franks, Julian R. and Robert S. Harris, “Shareholder Wealth Effects of Corporate Takeovers: The U. K. Experience 1955-1985,” Journal of Financial Economics, 23 (August 1989) 225-249.

Jarrell, Gregg A. and Michael Bradley, “The Economic Effects of Federal and State Regulation of Cash Tender Offers,” Journal of Law and Economics, 23 (October 1980) 371-407.

Meulbroek, Lisa K., “An Empirical Analysis of Illegal Insider Trading,” Journal of Finance, 47 (December 1992) 1661-1699.

Shahrur, Husayn, “Industry Structure and Horizontal Takeovers: Analysis of Wealth Effects on Rivals, Suppliers, and Corporate Customers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 76 (April 2005) 61-98.

Stillman, Robert, “Examining Antitrust Policy Towards Horizontal Mergers,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11 (April 1983) 224-240.

XII.   Proxy Fights

 

*DeAngelo, Harry and Linda DeAngelo, “Proxy Contests and the Governance of Publicly Held Corporations,” Journal of Financial Economics, 23 (June 1989) 29-59.

Brickley, James A., Ronald C. Lease, and Clifford W. Smith, “Ownership Structure and Voting on Antitakeover Amendments,” Journal of Financial Economics, 20 (January 1988) 267-291.

Dodd, Peter and Jerold B. Warner, “On Corporate Governance: The Impact of Proxy Contests,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11 (April 1983) 401-438.

Gillan, Stuart L. and Starks, Laura T., “Corporate Governance Proposals and Shareholder Activism: The Role of Institutional Investors,” Journal of Financial Economics, 57 (August 2000) 275-305.

Mulherin, J. Harold and Annette B. Poulsen, “Proxy contests and corporate change: implications for shareholder wealth,” Journal of Financial Economics, 47 (March 1998) 279-313.    

Pound, John, “Proxy Contests and the Efficiency of Shareholder Oversight,” Journal of Financial Economics, 20 (January 1988) 237-265.

Pound, John, “Proxy Voting and the SEC: Investor Protection versus Market Efficiency,” Journal of Financial Economics, 29 (October 1991) 241-285.

 

XIII.       The Value of Corporate Control


 

*DeAngelo, Harry and Linda DeAngelo, “Managerial Ownership of Voting Rights:  A Study of Public Corporations with Dual Classes of Common Stock,” Journal of Financial Economics, 14 (March 1985) 33-69.


Albuquerque, Rui, Enrique Schroth,#Quantifying private benefits of control from a structural model of block trades ,# Journal of Financial Economics, 96 ( April 2010) 33-55.

 

Albuquerque, Rui, Enrique Schroth, “Quantifying private benefits of control from a structural model of block trades,” Journal of Financial Economics, 96 (April 2010) 33-55.

Barclay, Michael J. and Clifford G. Holderness, “Private Benefits from Control of Public Corporations,” Journal of Financial Economics, 25 (December 1989) 371-395.

Barclay, Michael J. and Clifford G. Holderness, “Negotiated Block Trades and Corporate Control,” Journal of Finance, 46 (July 1991) 861-878.

Doidge, Craig, “U.S. Cross-Listings and the Private Benefits of Control: Evidence from Dual-Class Firms,” Journal of Financial Economics, 72 (June 2004) 519-533.

Edmans, Alex, and Gustavo Manso, “Governance Through Trading and Intervention: A Theory of Multiple Blockholders,” Review of Financial Studies, 24 (2011) 2395-2428.

Jarrell, Gregg A. and Annette B. Poulsen, “Dual-class Recapitalizations as Antitakeover Mechanisms: The Recent Evidence,” Journal of Financial Economics, 20 (January 1988) 129-152.

Lease, Ronald C., John J. McConnell, and Wayne H. Mikkelson, “The Market Value of Control in Publicly Traded Corporations,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11 (April 1983) 439-471.

Martin, Kenneth J. and John J. McConnell, “Corporate Performance, Corporate Takeovers, and Management Performance,” Journal of Finance, 46 (June 1991) 671-687.

Meeker, L. and O. Joy, “Price Premiums for Controlling Shares of Closely Held Bank Stock,” Journal of Business, 53 (1980) 297-314.

Mikkelson, Wayne H. and M. Megan Partch, “Managers’ Voting Rights and Corporate Control,” Journal of Financial Economics, 25 (December 1989) 263-290.

Mørck, R., Andrei Shleifer, and Robert W. Vishny, “Management Ownership and Market Valuation: An Empirical Analysis,” Journal of Financial Economics, 20 (January 1988) 293-315.

Nenova, Tatiana, "The value of corporate voting rights and control: A cross-country analysis,” Journal of Financial Economics, 68 (June 2003) 325-351.

Stulz, René M., “Managerial Control of Voting Rights: Financing Policies and the Market for Corporate Control,” Journal of Financial Economics, 20 (January 1988) 25-54.

Stulz, René M., “Managerial Discretion and Optimal Financing Policies,” Journal of Financial Economics, 26 (July 1990) 3-27.

XIV.     Divestitures and Spin-offs

 

WMM, Ch. 11.


Brealey, Myers & Allen, Ch. 33.

Ahn, Seoungpil and David J. Denis, “Internal Capital Markets and Investment Policy: Evidence from Corporate Spinoffs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 71 (March 2004) 489-516.

Allen, Jeffrey W, “Capital markets and corporate structure: the equity carve-outs of Thermo Electron,” Journal of Financial Economics, 48 (April 1998) 99-124.

Bayar, Onur, Thomas J. Chemmanur, Mark H. Liu, “A theory of equity carve-outs and negative stub values under heterogeneous beliefs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 100 (June 2011) 616-638.

Comment, Robert and Gregg A. Jarrell, “Corporate Focus and Stock Returns,” Journal of Financial Economics, 37 (January 1995) 67-87.

Chemmanur, Thomas J. and An Yan, “A Theory of Corporate Spin-offs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 72 (May 2004) 259-290.

Daley, Lane, Mehrotra, Vikas , and Sivakumar, Ranjini, “Corporate Focus and Value Creation: Evidence from Spinoffs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 45 (August 1997) 257-281.

Desai, Hemang and Prem C. Jain, “Firm Performance and Focus: Long-Run Stock Market Performance Following Spinoffs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 54 (October 1999) 75-101.

Hite, Galen L. and J. E. Owers, “Security Price Reactions Around Corporate Spin-off Announcements,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11 (December 1983) 409-436.

Jain, Bharat A., Omesh Kini, Jaideep Shenoy, “Vertical divestitures through equity carve-outs and spin-offs: A product markets perspective,” Journal of Financial Economics, 100 (June 2011) 594-615.

Krishnaswami, Sudha, and Subramaniam, Venkat, “Information Asymmetry, Valuation, and the Corporate Spin-Off Decision,” Journal of Financial Economics, 53 (July 1999) 73-112.

Lang, Larry, Annette Poulsen, and René M. Stulz, “Asset Sales, Firm Performance, and the Agency Costs of Managerial Discretion,” Journal of Financial Economics, 37 (January 1995) 3-37.

Schipper, Katherine and Abbie Smith, “Effects of Recontracting on Shareholder Wealth:  The Case of Voluntary Spin-offs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 11 (December 1983) 437-467.

Schipper, Katherine and Abbie Smith, “A Comparison of Equity Carve-outs and Seasoned Equity Offerings,” Journal of Financial Economics, 15 (January 1986) 153-186.

Schlingemann, Frederik P., Stulz, René M., and Walkling, Ralph A., “Divestitures and the Liquidity of the Market for Corporate Assets,” Journal of Financial Economics, 64 (April 2002) 117-144.

Slovin, Myron B., Marie E. Sushka, and Steven R. Ferraro, “A Comparison of the Information Conveyed by Equity Carve-outs, Spin-offs, and Asset Sell-offs,” Journal of Financial Economics, 37 (January 1995) 89-104.